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1: Chaturvedi RK, Flint Beal M. Mitochondrial diseases of the brain. Free Radic

Biol Med. 2013 Oct;63:1-29. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2013.03.018. Epub 2013

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2: Lee KA, Cho KC, Kim B, Jang IH, Nam K, Kwon YE, Kim M, Hyeon DY, Hwang D,

Seol JH, Lee WJ. Inflammation-Modulated Metabolic Reprogramming Is Required for

DUOX-Dependent Gut Immunity in Drosophila. Cell Host Microbe. 2018 Mar

14;23(3):338-352.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.chom.2018.01.011. Epub 2018 Mar 1. PMID:

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3: Moral-Sanz J, Lewis SA, MacMillan S, Ross FA, Thomson A, Viollet B, Foretz M,

Moran C, Hardie DG, Evans AM. The LKB1-AMPK-α1 signaling pathway triggers

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5: Onnis A, Cianfanelli V, Cassioli C, Samardzic D, Pelicci PG, Cecconi F,

Baldari CT. The pro-oxidant adaptor p66SHC promotes B cell mitophagy by

disrupting mitochondrial integrity and recruiting LC3-II. Autophagy.

2018;14(12):2117-2138. doi: 10.1080/15548627.2018.1505153. Epub 2018 Sep 6.

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Noguchi N. 6-Hydroxydopamine induces secretion of PARK7/DJ-1 via autophagy-based

unconventional secretory pathway. Autophagy. 2018;14(11):1943-1958. doi:

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7: Piragyte I, Clapes T, Polyzou A, Klein Geltink RI, Lefkopoulos S, Yin N,

Cauchy P, Curtis JD, Klaeylé L, Langa X, Beckmann CCA, Wlodarski MW, Müller P,

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Trompouki E. A metabolic interplay coordinated by HLX regulates myeloid

differentiation and AML through partly overlapping pathways. Nat Commun. 2018

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8: Poillet-Perez L, Despouy G, Delage-Mourroux R, Boyer-Guittaut M. Interplay

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9: Zimmermann K, Baldinger J, Mayerhofer B, Atanasov AG, Dirsch VM, Heiss EH.

Activated AMPK boosts the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling axis--A role for the unfolded

protein response. Version 2. Free Radic Biol Med. 2015 Nov;88(Pt B):417-426.

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10: Lu CC, Chiang JH, Tsai FJ, Hsu YM, Juan YN, Yang JS, Chiu HY. Metformin

triggers the intrinsic apoptotic response in human AGS gastric adenocarcinoma

cells by activating AMPK and suppressing mTOR/AKT signaling. Int J Oncol. 2019

Apr;54(4):1271-1281. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2019.4704. Epub 2019 Jan 30. PMID:

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11: Finley J. Facilitation of hippocampal long-term potentiation and

reactivation of latent HIV-1 via AMPK activation: Common mechanism of action

linking learning, memory, and the potential eradication of HIV-1. Med

Hypotheses. 2018 Jul;116:61-73. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2018.04.018. Epub 2018 Apr

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12: Zhao X, Fang J, Li S, Gaur U, Xing X, Wang H, Zheng W. Artemisinin

Attenuated Hydrogen Peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>)-Induced Oxidative

Injury in SH-SY5Y and Hippocampal Neurons via the Activation of AMPK Pathway.

Int J Mol Sci. 2019 May 31;20(11):2680. doi: 10.3390/ijms20112680. PMID:

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13: Du J, Wang T, Li Y, Zhou Y, Wang X, Yu X, Ren X, An Y, Wu Y, Sun W, Fan W,

Zhu Q, Wang Y, Tong X. DHA inhibits proliferation and induces ferroptosis of

leukemia cells through autophagy dependent degradation of ferritin. Free Radic

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2018 Dec 14. PMID: 30557609.


14: de Araújo S, Oliveira AP, Sousa FBM, Souza LKM, Pacheco G, Filgueiras MC,

Nicolau LAD, Brito GAC, Cerqueira GS, Silva RO, Souza MHLP, Medeiros JVR. AMPK

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mediators H<sub>2</sub>S, NO, and CO. Nitric Oxide. 2018 Aug 1;78:60-71. doi:

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15: Fan Y, Yang Q, Yang Y, Gao Z, Ma Y, Zhang L, Liang W, Ding G. Sirt6

Suppresses High Glucose-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Apoptosis in

Podocytes through AMPK Activation. Int J Biol Sci. 2019 Jan 24;15(3):701-713.

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16: Zheng Q, Zhao Y, Guo J, Zhao S, Fei C, Xiao C, Wu D, Wu L, Li X, Chang C.

Iron overload promotes mitochondrial fragmentation in mesenchymal stromal cells

from myelodysplastic syndrome patients through activation of the AMPK/MFF/Drp1

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17: Liu N, Xu L, Shi Y, Zhuang S. Podocyte Autophagy: A Potential Therapeutic

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18: Choi YH. ROS-mediated activation of AMPK plays a critical role in

sulforaphane-induced apoptosis and mitotic arrest in AGS human gastric cancer

cells. Gen Physiol Biophys. 2018 Mar;37(2):129-140. doi: 10.4149/gpb_2017026.

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19: Mogavero A, Maiorana MV, Zanutto S, Varinelli L, Bozzi F, Belfiore A, Volpi

CC, Gloghini A, Pierotti MA, Gariboldi M. Metformin transiently inhibits

colorectal cancer cell proliferation as a result of either AMPK activation or

increased ROS production. Sci Rep. 2017 Nov 22;7(1):15992. doi:

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20: Maeda A, Shirao T, Shirasaya D, Yoshioka Y, Yamashita Y, Akagawa M, Ashida

H. Piperine Promotes Glucose Uptake through ROS-Dependent Activation of the

CAMKK/AMPK Signaling Pathway in Skeletal Muscle. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2018

Jun;62(11):e1800086. doi: 10.1002/mnfr.201800086. Epub 2018 May 17. PMID:

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21: Le DT, Jung S, Quynh NTN, Sandag Z, Lee BS, Kim S, Lee H, Lee H, Lee MS.

Inhibitory role of AMP‑activated protein kinase in necroptosis of HCT116 colon

cancer cells with p53 null mutation under nutrient starvation. Int J Oncol. 2019

Feb;54(2):702-712. doi: 10.3892/ijo.2018.4634. Epub 2018 Nov 14. PMID: 30431068.


22: Li S, Gaur U, Chong CM, Lin S, Fang J, Zeng Z, Wang H, Zheng W. Berberine

Protects Human Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells from Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced

Oxidative Damage through Activation of AMPK. Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Jun

12;19(6):1736. doi: 10.3390/ijms19061736. PMID: 29895743; PMCID: PMC6032421.


23: Hwang HJ, Jung TW, Kim JW, Kim JA, Lee YB, Hong SH, Roh E, Choi KM, Baik SH,

Yoo HJ. Protectin DX prevents H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>-mediated oxidative

stress in vascular endothelial cells via an AMPK-dependent mechanism. Cell

Signal. 2019 Jan;53:14-21. doi: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2018.09.011. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

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24: Zakłos-Szyda M, Pawlik N. Japanese quince (Chaenomeles japonica L.) fruit

polyphenolic extract modulates carbohydrate metabolism in HepG2 cells via AMP-

activated protein kinase. Acta Biochim Pol. 2018;65(1):67-78. doi:

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25: Choi YH. Schisandrin A prevents oxidative stress-induced DNA damage and

apoptosis by attenuating ROS generation in C2C12 cells. Biomed Pharmacother.

2018 Oct;106:902-909. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.07.035. Epub 2018 Jul 12. PMID:

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26: O'Sullivan TE, Johnson LR, Kang HH, Sun JC. BNIP3- and BNIP3L-Mediated

Mitophagy Promotes the Generation of Natural Killer Cell Memory. Immunity. 2015

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27: Grossini E, Farruggio S, Raina G, Mary D, Deiro G, Gentilli S. Effects of

Genistein on Differentiation and Viability of Human Visceral Adipocytes.

Nutrients. 2018 Jul 27;10(8):978. doi: 10.3390/nu10080978. PMID: 30060502;

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28: Chu J, Han W. Punicalagin Exerts Beneficial Functions in 6-Hydroxydopamine-

Treated SH-SY5Y Cells by Attenuating Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Inflammatory

Responses. Med Sci Monit. 2018 Aug 25;24:5905-5913. doi: 10.12659/MSM.909969.

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29: Wu W, Wang S, Liu Q, Wang X, Shan T, Wang Y. Cathelicidin-WA attenuates LPS-

induced inflammation and redox imbalance through activation of AMPK signaling.

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30: Kratchmarov R, Viragova S, Kim MJ, Rothman NJ, Liu K, Reizis B, Reiner SL.

Metabolic control of cell fate bifurcations in a hematopoietic progenitor

population. Immunol Cell Biol. 2018 Sep;96(8):863-871. doi: 10.1111/imcb.12040.

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31: Wang C, Mao C, Lou Y, Xu J, Wang Q, Zhang Z, Tang Q, Zhang X, Xu H, Feng Y.

Monotropein promotes angiogenesis and inhibits oxidative stress-induced

autophagy in endothelial progenitor cells to accelerate wound healing. J Cell

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32: Park SY, Jin ML, Yi EH, Kim Y, Park G. Neochlorogenic acid inhibits against

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33: Lamphier M, Zheng W, Latz E, Spyvee M, Hansen H, Rose J, Genest M, Yang H,

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34: Chen X, Zhao X, Cai H, Sun H, Hu Y, Huang X, Kong W, Kong W. The role of

sodium hydrosulfide in attenuating the aging process via PI3K/AKT and

CaMKKβ/AMPK pathways. Redox Biol. 2017 Aug;12:987-1003. doi:

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35: Liu Y, Liao L, Chen Y, Han F. Effects of daphnetin on lipid metabolism,

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2019 Jun;19(6):4673-4684. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2019.10139. Epub 2019 Apr 5. PMID:

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36: Ou HC, Pandey S, Hung MY, Huang SH, Hsu PT, Day CH, Pai P, Viswanadha VP,

Kuo WW, Huang CY. Luteolin: A Natural Flavonoid Enhances the Survival of HUVECs

against Oxidative Stress by Modulating AMPK/PKC Pathway. Am J Chin Med.

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37: Qiu L, Luo Y, Chen X. Quercetin attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction and

biogenesis via upregulated AMPK/SIRT1 signaling pathway in OA rats. Biomed

Pharmacother. 2018 Jul;103:1585-1591. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.05.003. Epub

2018 May 7. PMID: 29864946.


38: Das DN, Naik PP, Mukhopadhyay S, Panda PK, Sinha N, Meher BR, Bhutia SK.

Elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria through mitophagy suppresses

benzo[a]pyrene-induced apoptosis. Free Radic Biol Med. 2017 Nov;112:452-463.

doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2017.08.020. Epub 2017 Aug 24. PMID: 28843778.


39: Fazakerley DJ, Minard AY, Krycer JR, Thomas KC, Stöckli J, Harney DJ,

Burchfield JG, Maghzal GJ, Caldwell ST, Hartley RC, Stocker R, Murphy MP, James

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40: Chen R, Cui Y, Zhang X, Zhang Y, Chen M, Zhou T, Lan X, Dong W, Pan C.

Chlorpyrifos Induction of Testicular-Cell Apoptosis through Generation of

Reactive Oxygen Species and Phosphorylation of AMPK. J Agric Food Chem. 2018 Nov

28;66(47):12455-12470. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.8b03407. Epub 2018 Nov 15. PMID:

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41: Hu J, Cui W, Ding W, Gu Y, Wang Z, Fan W. Globular Adiponectin Attenuated

H2O2-Induced Apoptosis in Rat Chondrocytes by Inducing Autophagy Through the

AMPK/ mTOR Pathway. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;43(1):367-382. doi:

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42: Zhang X, Feng Y, Wang Y, Wang J, Xiang D, Niu W, Yuan F. Resveratrol

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ocular hypertension model. Life Sci. 2018 Aug 15;207:234-245. doi:

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43: Bianchi G, Ravera S, Traverso C, Amaro A, Piaggio F, Emionite L, Bachetti T,

Pfeffer U, Raffaghello L. Curcumin induces a fatal energetic impairment in tumor

cells in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting ATP-synthase activity. Carcinogenesis.

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44: Ou HC, Chou WC, Chu PM, Hsieh PL, Hung CH, Tsai KL. Fucoxanthin Protects

against oxLDL-Induced Endothelial Damage via Activating the AMPK-Akt-CREB-PGC1α

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45: Hu C, Zhang H, Qiao Z, Wang Y, Zhang P, Yang D. Loss of thioredoxin 2 alters

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46: Wang Y, Han X, Fu M, Wang J, Song Y, Liu Y, Zhang J, Zhou J, Ge J.

Qiliqiangxin attenuates hypoxia-induced injury in primary rat cardiac

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47: Jiang S, Park DW, Gao Y, Ravi S, Darley-Usmar V, Abraham E, Zmijewski JW.

Participation of proteasome-ubiquitin protein degradation in autophagy and the

activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. Cell Signal. 2015 Jun;27(6):1186-97.

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48: Yuan H, Hu Y, Zhu Y, Zhang Y, Luo C, Li Z, Wen T, Zhuang W, Zou J, Hong L,

Zhang X, Hisatome I, Yamamoto T, Cheng J. Metformin ameliorates high uric acid-

induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2017

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49: Dai SH, Chen T, Li X, Yue KY, Luo P, Yang LK, Zhu J, Wang YH, Fei Z, Jiang

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Involvement of the AMPK-mTOR pathway. Free Radic Biol Med. 2017 Jul;108:345-353.

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50: Wang L, Zhang S, Cheng H, Lv H, Cheng G, Ci X. Nrf2-mediated liver

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51: Li M, Zhao J, Hu Y, Lu H, Guo J. Oxygen free radicals regulate energy

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52: Frasca D, Diaz A, Romero M, Thaller S, Blomberg BB. Metabolic requirements

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53: Puthanveetil P, Rodrigues B. Glucocorticoid excess induces accumulation of

cardiac glycogen and triglyceride: suggested role for AMPK. Curr Pharm Des.

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54: Jiang B, Le L, Liu H, Xu L, He C, Hu K, Peng Y, Xiao P. Marein protects

against methylglyoxal-induced apoptosis by activating the AMPK pathway in PC12

cells. Free Radic Res. 2016;50(11):1173-1187. doi:

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55: Rabenau M, Unger M, Drewe J, Culmsee C. Metabolic switch induced by

Cimicifuga racemosa extract prevents mitochondrial damage and oxidative cell

death. Phytomedicine. 2019 Jan;52:107-116. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2018.09.177.

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56: Zhao D, Sun X, Lv S, Sun M, Guo H, Zhai Y, Wang Z, Dai P, Zheng L, Ye M,

Wang X. Salidroside attenuates oxidized low‑density lipoprotein‑induced

endothelial cell injury via promotion of the AMPK/SIRT1 pathway. Int J Mol Med.

2019 Jun;43(6):2279-2290. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2019.4153. Epub 2019 Apr 1. PMID:

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57: Li S, Sun X, Xu L, Sun R, Ma Z, Deng X, Liu B, Fu Q, Qu R, Ma S. Baicalin

attenuates in vivo and in vitro hyperglycemia-exacerbated ischemia/reperfusion

injury by regulating mitochondrial function in a manner dependent on AMPK. Eur J

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58: Lee HJ, Lee JO, Kim N, Kim JK, Kim HI, Lee YW, Kim SJ, Choi JI, Oh Y, Kim

JH, Suyeon-Hwang, Park SH, Kim HS. Irisin, a Novel Myokine, Regulates Glucose

Uptake in Skeletal Muscle Cells via AMPK. Mol Endocrinol. 2015 Jun;29(6):873-81.

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59: Swegen A, Lambourne SR, Aitken RJ, Gibb Z. Rosiglitazone Improves Stallion

Sperm Motility, ATP Content, and Mitochondrial Function. Biol Reprod. 2016

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60: Seo K, Ki SH, Shin SM. Sestrin2-AMPK activation protects mitochondrial

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61: Kim MY, Bo HH, Choi EO, Kwon DH, Kim HJ, Ahn KI, Ji SY, Jeong JW, Park SH,

Hong SH, Kim GY, Park C, Kim HS, Moon SK, Yun SJ, Kim WJ, Choi YH. Induction of

Apoptosis by Citrus unshiu Peel in Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cells: Involvement

of ROS-Dependent Activation of AMPK. Biol Pharm Bull. 2018;41(5):713-721. doi:

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62: Gao J, Xu Y, Zhang J, Shi J, Gong Q. Lithocarpus polystachyus Rehd. leaves

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63: Han L, Yang Q, Li J, Cheng F, Zhang Y, Li Y, Wang M. Protocatechuic Acid-

Ameliorated Endothelial Oxidative Stress through Regulating Acetylation Level

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64: Seo K, Seo S, Ki SH, Shin SM. Compound C Increases Sestrin2 Expression via

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65: Kim MJ, Hwang JW, Yun CK, Lee Y, Choi YS. Delivery of exogenous mitochondria

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66: Choi YH. Diallyl trisulfide induces apoptosis and mitotic arrest in AGS

human gastric carcinoma cells through reactive oxygen species-mediated

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Oct;94:63-71. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.07.055. Epub 2017 Jul 26. PMID:

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67: Yu H, Zhang H, Dong M, Wu Z, Shen Z, Xie Y, Kong Z, Dai X, Xu B. Metabolic

reprogramming and AMPKα1 pathway activation by caulerpin in colorectal cancer

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68: Zhu Z, Li R, Lv Y, Zeng W. Melatonin protects rabbit spermatozoa from cryo-

damage via decreasing oxidative stress. Cryobiology. 2019 Jun;88:1-8. doi:

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69: Huang Q, Cao H, Zhan L, Sun X, Wang G, Li J, Guo X, Ren T, Wang Z, Lyu Y,

Liu B, An J, Xing J. Mitochondrial fission forms a positive feedback loop with

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70: Ghimire K, Zaric J, Alday-Parejo B, Seebach J, Bousquenaud M, Stalin J,

Bieler G, Schnittler HJ, Rüegg C. MAGI1 Mediates eNOS Activation and NO

Production in Endothelial Cells in Response to Fluid Shear Stress. Cells. 2019

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71: Cho KJ, Casteel DE, Prakash P, Tan L, van der Hoeven D, Salim AA, Kim C,

Capon RJ, Lacey E, Cunha SR, Gorfe AA, Hancock JF. AMPK and Endothelial Nitric

Oxide Synthase Signaling Regulates K-Ras Plasma Membrane Interactions via Cyclic

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72: Kullmann FA, McDonnell BM, Wolf-Johnston AS, Kanai AJ, Shiva S, Chelimsky T,

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